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The Development Of Loran-C Navigation And Timing

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The Development Of Loran-C Navigation And Timing


Published October 1972
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NBS monograph 129.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
ABSTRACT
FOREWORD L. E. Gatterer
FOREWORD Robert H. Doherty
PREFACE
1. INTRODUCTION
2. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF LORAN AND GEE Q
3. LOW-FREQUENCY LORAN , CYCLAN AND WHYN
4. CYTAC DEVELOPMENT AND PRELIMINARY TESTS
5. CYTAC FIELD TESTS
5.1. General Description of Test Program
5.2. Summary of Field Measurements
5.2.1. Baseline Extension Measurements
5.2.2. Random Errors
5.2.3. Systematic Errors
5.2.4. Flight Tests (Random and Systematic Errors)
5.3. Rate of Change of Systematic Errors
5.4. Localized Phase Errors
5.5. Instrumentation Errors
5.6. Temporal Variations
5.7. Skywaves
6. LORAN-C — AN OPERATIONAL SYSTEM 72
7. LORAN-C TIMING 93
7.1. Background 93
7.2. Time and Distance 93
7.3. Evolution of Timing Requirements 95
7.4. The Loran-C Clock
7.5. Timing Receiver
7.6. Divider Chain and Clock Readout
7.7. Identification of Larger Units of Time
7.8. UHF Time-Distribution System
7.9. AMR Timing Tests
7.10. Monitoring and Steering 10 3
7.11. Timing with Specific Repetition Rates 106
8. LORAN-C SKYWAVES
9. CALIBRATION OF A LORAN-C SYSTEM
10. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS l 3
11. GLOSSARY OF SPECIALIZED TERMS AND SYMBOLS 3- 3 7
12. REFERENCES 139
13. BIBLIOGRAPHY 141
LIST OF FIGURES
3.1. LF loran monitoring sites and test-flight routes (Signal Corps). 9
3.2. Loran triad geometry. 10
3.3. Average transmission delay corrections for LF Loran (Signal Corps). 12
3.4. Camp Ripley data (Signal Corps). 13
3.5. Wright Field data (Signal Corps). 13
3.6. Distribution of daytime errors, Wright Field (Signal Corps). 14
3.7. Distribution of nighttime errors, Wright Field (Signal Corps). 14
3.8. Loran grid for square configuration of transmitters (Signal Corps). 14
3.9. Cyclan mobile receiver. 21
3.10. Cyclan baseline extension data. 22
4.1. Sperry technique for marking a point on the Loran-C pulse. 26
4.2. NBS pulse scheme. 27
4.3. Scope photograph of NBS pulse. 28
4.4. NBS pulse monitoring locations. 29
4.5. Pulse envelope tracings. 30
4.6. Cytac envelope deviations ordinate value not exceeded 90 percent of time. 31
4.7. Cytac ground- and skywave measurements. 32
4.8. Geometric representation of skywave paths. 32
5.1. Cytac transmitters and grid. 39
5.2. Cytac monitoring sites. 40
5.3. Forestport (S^) baseline extension. 40
5.4. Forestport measurements. Smooth curves are for a = 0.001. 41
5.5. Forestport measurements. 42
5.6. Readings at Williams Bay, Wisconsin. 44
5.7. Reading at Smith Center, Kansas. 44
5.8. Readings at Drakesboro, Kentucky. 44
5.9. Readings at Dayton, Tennessee. 44
5.10. Readings at Twin City, Georgia. 44
5.11. Circular and elliptical distribution of errors, 50% of fixes. Williams Bay, Wisconsin. 45
5.12. Circular and elliptical distribution of errors, 50% of fixes, Smith Center, Kansas. 45
5.13. Circular and elliptical distribution of errors, 50% of fixes. Drakesboro, Kentucky, 45
5.14. Circular and elliptical distribution of errors, 50% of fixes. Dayton, Tennessee. 45
5.15. Circular and elliptical distribution of errors, 50% of fixes. Twin City, Georgia. 46
5.16. Contours of constant time-difference corrections (S^) . 48
5.17. Contours of constant time-difference corrections (S 2 ) 48
5.18. S readings, Dayton, Tennessee. 50
5.19. S 2 readings, Dayton, Tennessee. 50
5.20. Tracks of aircraft flying over GMR, Dayton, Tennessee. 50
5.21. Simulated bombing runs. The unadjusted prediction shows the error that would have been made without using the correction contours. 58
5.22. Simulated bombing runs. The unadjusted prediction shows the error that would have been made without using the correction contours. 58
5.23. A plot of the miss distances vs. distance from the nearest GMR site. 59
5.24. Area where systematic corrections were studied. 60
5.25. Airborne and ground measurements of systematic corrections. 61
5.26. Airborne measurements of systematic errors. 61
5.27. Measured systematic errors. 62
5.28. Airborne measurements of systematic corrections. Dashed curves - flying east. Solid curves - flying west. (See fig. 5.26 for locations.) 62
5.29. Additional systematic correction measurements near Bryson City, North Carolina. 62
5.30. Measurements along U.S. Highway 11, near Riceville, Tennessee. 63
5.31. Time-difference errors from figure 5.30. 64
5.32. Time-difference readings with and without phase coding - Dayton, Tennessee. 65
5.33. Simultaneous S^ time-difference readings. 65
5.34. Running average of Clarkton, North Caroline time difference, November 30 to December 1, 1954. 67
5.35. and S£ average cycle readings at Clarksdale, Mississippi (Rena) 67
5.36. S 1 and S~ daily average cycle readings at Clarkton, North Carolina (Rodgers) 68
5.37. First-hop skywave measurements, Carolina Beach to Boulder. 70
6.1. Martha's Vineyard station during construction. 73
6.2. Jupiter station after completion. 73
6.3. Jupiter transmitter (AN/FPN 15). 74
6.4. Bermuda fixes - September, 1957 to August, 195 8, 8-hour averages. (Jansky & Bailey). 7 8
6.5. Bermuda fixes - September 4-6, 1957, 15-min averages (Jansky & Bailey) 78
6.6. Airborne fixes, Little Sale Cay (Jansky & Bailey). 80
6.7. Airborne fixes, Bassett Cove (Jansky & Bailey). 80
6.8. Airborne fixes, Walker Cay (Jansky & Bailey). 80
6.9. Loran-C Chains. 83
6.10. Jan Mayen Island station. 83
7.1. Time-scale distribution by Loran-C transmitter. 94
7.2. Relative gain or loss of independent clocks. 97
7.3. Loran-C clock. 98
7.4. Pulse group tc time relationship. 100
7.5. Synchronization of two clocks to check propagation. 102
8.1. Regions where the majority of skywave measurements have been made. 116
8.2. Phase and amplitude of the Loran-C skywave recorded on a north-south path. 117
8.3. First-hop skywave from Carolina Beach, North Carolina to Boulder, Colorado. 117
8.4. First-hop skywave from Carolina Beach, North Carolina to Boulder, Colorado. 118
8.5. First-hop skywave from Carolina Beach, North Carolina to Boulder, Colorado 118
8.6. First-hop skywave from Carolina Beach, North Carolina to Boulder, Colorado. 119
8.7. Solar event of September 28, 1961. 119
8.8. Wake Island, Nov. 1, 1963. 121
8.9. Wake Island, Nov. 8, 1963. 121
8.10. Wake Island, May 1, 1964.
8.11. Wake Island, May 2, 1964.
8.12. Wake Island, July 10, 1964. 12 2
9.1. Secondary-phase corrections as a function of distance parametric in conductivity. 22 8
9.2. Secondary-phase corrections as a function of distance parametric in conductivity.28
9.3. Rate of change of secondary correction at a great distance as a function of conductivity. 129
9.4. Example plot of readings taken at 30 and 100 km from near transmitter. 130
9.5. Typical master station location. 133
LIST OF TABLES
3.1. Standard Deviation of Measurement Errors andTime Differences -us. 15
5.1. Cytac Test-Site Locations. 37
5.2. Periods of Observation. 4 3
5.3. Major and Minor Semi- Axis of 50 Percent Error Ellipses. 46
5.4. Cytac Errors Ba&ed pn Conductivity Corrections 48
5.5. C-47 Flights at Dayton, Tennessee (Evensville). 52
5.6. C-47 Flights at Twin City, Georgia (Canaday) 53
5.7. C-47 Flights at Savannah, Georgia (Chester). 54
5.8. C-47 Flights at Titusville, Florida (Wilson). 55
5.9. C-47 Flights at Ft. Myers, Florida (Punta Rassa) 56
5.10. Miss Distances Associated with Bombing Runs. 57
5.11. Site Locations for Calibrating Flights. 60
5.12. Daytime Skywave Measurements. 69
6.1. Time and Data Percentages - Feb. 3 to Aug. 2 8, 195 8. 75
6.2. Transmitter Interruptions for Period June 2 to July 3, 195 8. 76
6.3. Measured vs. Predicted TDs . 81
6.4. Present Operational Loran-C Chains. 82
7.1. Results of the AMR Tests. 104-105
7.2. Loran Repetition Rate Periods. 106
7.3. Intervals in seconds at which pulse groups coincide with whole seconds. 107
8.1. Measurements Made on Caribbean Trip. 112
8.2. Time-Difference Measurements (Jansky & Bailey Measurements). 112
8.3. Summary of Measured Skywave Corrections (Jansky & Bailey Measurements) 113
Digitized by Technical Report Archive & Image Library (TRAIL).


Publisher Washington : U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards : For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.
Year 1972
Pages 159
Language English
Collection folkscanomy_electronics; folkscanomy; additional_collections

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